REFINED CRUDE OIL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS

This group of are those derived from the refining processes These are either gases or liquids and shipped in various classes of tank cars. A comprehensive listing of the type cars used can be found in the book American Car & Foundry by Kaminski

ACETALDEHYDE

WHAT IS IT ?
Aldehydes are organic compounds containing -CHO radical, in which a carbon atom forms a double bond with an oxygen atom and is also bonded to a hydrogen atom and another group denoted by R, which can be a second hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, or an aryl group. The most important and the simplest examples are methanal (formaldehyde), HCOH, and ethanal (acetaldehyde), CH3CHO.( In systematic chemical nomenclature, aldehyde names end with the suffix -al). Formaldehyde is used to make synthetic resins by reaction with phenols, urea, and melamine, as a chemical intermediate, as an embalming fluid, and as a disinfectant. Acetaldehyde is used chiefly to manufacture acetic acid. They are unpleasant-smelling liquids widely used in the chemical industry, whereas aromatic aldehydes frequently have pleasant smells and are used widely as flavourings and perfumes. An example is benzaldehyde (benzenecarbaldehyde, C6H5CHO), a derivative of benzene with an aldehyde group attached to the ring. It is a colourless oil smelling of almonds offer applications to both in perfumes and flavourings. Aldehydes are formed by oxidation of primary alcohols; further oxidation yields carboxylic acids. Aldehydes have certain characteristic addition and condensation reactions. Aldehydes can be reduced to primary alcohols (ketones to secondary alcohols). Aldehydes form cyanohydrins with hydrogen cyanide, acetals with alcohol, yellow-orange solid derivatives with DNP ( 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones) and undergo condensation reactions to yield oximes (compounds containing the group C:NOH), hydrazones (organic compounds containing the group =C:NNH2), and semicarbazones (organic compounds containing the unsaturated group =C:N.NH.CO.NH2). Aldehydes readily polymerize
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Acetaldehyde is used in the manufacture of pentaerythritol, peracetic acid, pyridines, paraldehyde, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, 2-ethylhexanol, aldol, chloral, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, butanol, perfumes, aniline dyes, plastics and synthetic rubber. It is used in silvering mirrors and in hardening gelatin fibers. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant. The main use of acetaldehyde is as an intermediate for the synthesis of other chemicals. The main derivatives of Acetaldehyde are the oxygenated solvent Ethyl Acetate, Pentaerythritol (used in the production of synthetic resins for the paint industry) and Pyridines. Acetaldehyde is used in the production of perfumes, polyester resins, and basic dyes. Acetaldehyde is also used as a solvent in the rubber, tanning, and paper industries, as a fruit and fish preservative, as a flavoring agent, for hardening gelatin, as a denaturant for alcohol and in fuel compositions.

ACETIC ACID

WHAT IS IT ?
The Monsanto acetic acid process is the major commercial production method for acetic acid. Methanol, which can be generated from synthesis gas ("syn gas", a CO/H2 mixture), is reacted with carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst to afford acetic acid.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Acetic acid is an important industrial chemical. About 3.2 109 kilograms of acetic acid were produced in the United States in 1999. The primary use of this chemical is in the manufacture of assorted acetate esters. These are substances formed by reacting acetic acid with a substance containing a hydroxyl (OH) group. Cellulose, found in cotton and wood, is a polymeric material containing multiple hydroxyl groups. It reacts with acetic acid to yield cellulose acetate, which is used to make films and textiles. Some photographic films are made of cellulose acetate, and rayon is made from cellulose acetate fibers. Vinyl acetate, another ester of acetic acid, polymerizes to form poly(vinyl acetate), which is used in water-based latex paints and in glues for paper and wood. Acetic acid is also used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is formed by the reaction between acetic acid and salicylic acid.

ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

WHAT IS IT ?
Acetic anhydride is a clear, colorless, mobile (free-flowing) liquid with a sharp odor similar to that of acetic acid. It hydrolyzes in water to yield acetic acid. In its liquid or vapor state, acetic anhydride can irritate body tissues, possibly leading to the death of such tissue. Acetic anhydride melts at 73C, boils at 139C, and has a density of 1.080 g/mL at 15C. It is flammable with a flash point of 54C. This compound is readily combustible and represents a fire hazard. Shipped in various ICC class 103 insulated tank cars.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
As with acetic acid, the primary use of acetic anhydride is used in the manufacture of cellulose acetate for films and plastic goods; about 75 percent of the acetic anhydride produced annually in the United States is used for this purpose. Approximately 1.5 percent of the annual acetic anhydride production is used in the synthesis of aspirin. Other uses include the manufacture of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, plastics, synthetic fibers, explosives, and weed killers. Because acetic anhydride reacts with water, it is sometimes used as a dehydrating agent in reaction mixtures where removal of water is necessary

ACETONE

WHAT IS IT ?
Acetone can be prepared in the laboratory by oxidation of isopropyl alcohol, by heating calcium acetate, or by fermenting sugar with certain bacteria. Currently, most acetone is produced by the Hock process, which uses as raw materials benzene and propene to produce acetone and phenol. Acetone is a manufactured chemical that is also found naturally in the environment. It is a colorless liquid with a distinct smell and taste. It evaporates easily, is flammable, and dissolves in water. It is also called dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, and beta-ketopropane.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
A colorless, flammable liquid, CH3COCH3, the simplest of the organic chemicals called ketones. Completely soluble in water and organic solvents, acetone is itself an important solvent and is used both in the laboratory and in industry. Also called dimethyl ketone and 2-propanone, it has a mild, pleasant odor, boils at 56 C (133 F), and melts at -95 C (-139 F). Enormous quantities are used as solvents for cellulose acetate in the production of rayon and as a gelatinizing agent for explosives. Acetone is also used as an ingredient in lacquer solvent and to dissolve gums and resins. It is the solvent in rubber cement and in some cleaning fluids. Acetone is used to make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals. It is also used to dissolve other substances.

ACRYLONITRILE

WHAT IS IT ?
A colorless, volatile liquid with a pungent odor. It can be made by the reaction of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, with ethylene oxide, (CH2)2O, or acetylene, C2H2. Currently, however, most acrylonitrile is produced through the reaction of propene, ammonia, and oxygen.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Acrylonitrile is used in the production of acrylic fibers, plastics, and synthetic rubbers

ACETYLENE

WHAT IS IT ?
colorless, odorless, flammable gas. As ordinarily prepared it has an unpleasant odor due to impurities. Acetylene, also known as ethyne, can be prepared from any of various organic compounds by heating them in the absence of air, but it is produced commercially by the reaction of calcium carbide with water or as a by-product of the production of ethylene. Although acetylene can be liquefied at ordinary temperatures with high pressure, it is violently explosive as a liquid. Acetylene gas is usually stored in metal tanks, under pressure, dissolved in liquid acetone. When acetylene is bubbled through a solution of ammonia and cuprous chloride, copper acetylide, a reddish precipitate, is formed. This is used as a test for acetylene. Copper acetylide is explosive when dry.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Acetylene is used primarily as a welding gas.

ACROLEIN

WHAT IS IT ?
It is produced by heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of propene. Acrylic acid and carbon oxides are the by-products of this reaction. Acrolein is a clear or yellow liquid with a disagreeable odor. It dissolves in water very easily and quickly changes to a vapor when heated. It also burns easily.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Acrolein is used as a pesticide to control algae, weeds, bacteria, and mollusks. It is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of acrylic acid and its esters. It is used directly as an aquatic herbicide and algicide in irrigation canals, as a microbiocide in oil wells, liquid hydrocarbon fuels, cooling-water towers and water treatment ponds, and as a slimicide in the manufacture of paper.

ACRYLIC RESIN

WHAT IS IT ?
any of a group of thermoplastic resins formed from the polymerization (see polymer) of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, esters of these acids, or acrylonitrile. It is used in the manufacture of lightweight, weather-resistant, exceptionally clear plastics.

ANHYDROUS AMMONIA

WHAT IS IT ?
Ingredients for the production of anhydrous ammonia are air, natural gas and steam (air is 78% nitrogen). In the first step of the process, natural gas reacts with steam over a catalyst, producing a hydrogen-rich gas. This change is completed at a temperature ranging from 760 to 816 Celsius (1400 to 1500 Fahrenheit). Next, air is added and carefully regulated to provide the exact amount of nitrogen needed for ammonia synthesis. After a series of processes to remove carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, the remaining high-purity gas (high in nitrogen and hydrogen content) is compressed under extreme pressure and sent to a reactor vessel where ammonia is synthesized. The anhydrous ammonia is then liquified and stored at a temperature of approximately -34 Celsius (-30 Fahrenheit). The carbon dioxide from this process is used in urea production.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is provided in a variety of grades for: Agricultural Industrial Metallurgical Refrigeration It is also used in the production of urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium sulphate.

ARGON

WHAT IS IT ?
The gas is prepared by fractionation of liquid air because the atmosphere contains 0.94% argon. The atmosphere of Mars contains 1.6% of 40Ar and 5 p.p.m. of 36Ar.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
It is used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 400 Pa. and in filling photo tubes, glow tubes, etc. Argon is also used as an inert gas shield for arc welding and cutting, as blanket for the production of titanium and other reactive elements, and as a protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals.

ASPHALT

WHAT IS IT ?
brown-to-black, bituminous material (see bitumen) of high molecular weight, occurring naturally or as a residue from the distillation of crude oil.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Paving of roadways, as a bonding agent in road building, and in numerous industrial applications, including the manufacture of roofing. Blown, or oxidized asphalt is produced by blowing air through asphalt at high temperatures, producing a tougher, more durable asphalt. BENZENE is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities.

BENZENE

WHAT IS IT ?
Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil and gasoline. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires.

BENZYL CHLORIDE

WHAT IS IT ?
Benzyl chloride is a colorless liquid with a very pungent odor.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
BENZYL CHLORIDE is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of Dyes, Intermediates Benzyl Compounds, Synthetic Tannins, Perfumery, Pharmaceuticals, Manufacture of Photographic Developer, Gasoline Gum Inhibitors, Penicillin Precursors, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Benzyl chloride has been used as an irritant gas in chemical warfare.

BUTADIENE

WHAT IS IT ?
1,3-BUTADIENE ranks 36th in the top 50 most produced chemicals in the United States. Three billion pounds per year are produced in the United States and 12 billion globally. 1,3-Butadiene is produced through the processing of petroleum and is mainly used in the production of synthetic rubber, but is also found in smaller amounts in plastics and fuel. Colorless gas that has a mild gasoline odor. Soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone, and benzene, not soluble in water. Flammable Extreme fire hazard.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
1,3-butadiene is used for synthetic elastomer (rubber and latex) production, petroleum refining, secondary lead smelting, water treatment, agricultural fungicides, production of raw material for nylon, and the use of fossil fuels.

BUTANAL

WHAT IS IT ?
Butyraldehyde (also called butanal) is a colorless, flammable liquid. It occurs naturally in several plants and foods. Microorganisms release it as they break down organic material. Butyraldehyde is produced in very large amounts (almost 2 billion pounds in 1992) by five companies in the United States. U.S. demand for butyraldehyde is likely to remain steady for the next several years.
WHAT IS IT USED FOR ?
The largest users of butyraldehyde are companies that make rubber accelerators, synthetic resins, solvents, plasticizers, and high molecular weight polymers, synthetic flavoring in foods. Butyraldehyde is used as an intermediate in the manufacturing plasticizers, alcohols, solvents and polymers such as 2-Ethylhexanol, n-butanol, trimethylolpropane, n-butyric acid, polyvinyl butyral, methyl amyl ketone. It is also used as an intermediate to make pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals antioxidants, rubber accelerators, textile auxiliaries, perfumery and flavors.

ETHANOL

WHAT IS IT ?
also known as ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH). Obtained principally from the fermentation of grains or blackstrap molasses; also obtained from ethylene, by absorption in sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing with water. Widely used as an industrial solvent, extraction medium, chemical intermediate, and in many proprietary products. One of a number of oxygenates that may be added to motor gasoline to reduce harmful automobile exhaust emissions.

ETHYLENE

WHAT IS IT ?
flammable gas (C2H4) derived from natural gas and petroleum; the lowest molecular weight member of the generic family of olefins. Ethylene is widely used a feedstock in the manufacture of petrochemicals, including polyethylene and other plastics.

(EPDM)

WHAT IS IT ?
synthetic rubber: EPM is a polymer of ethylene and propylene; EPDM is a polymer of ethylene and propylene with a small amount of a third monomer (usually a diolefin) to permit vulcanization with sulfur. EPM and EPDM possess excellent resistance to ozone, sunlight, and weathering, have good flexibility at low temperatures, and good electrical insulation properties. Used in the manufacture of tires, hoses, auto parts, coated fabrics, and electrical insulation.

FATTY ACID

WHAT IS IT ?
any monobasic (one displaceable hydrogen atom per molecule) organic acid having the general formula CnH2n+1 COOH. Fatty acids derived from natural fats and oils are used to make soaps used in the manufacture of greases and other lubricants.

FEEDSTOCK

WHAT IS IT ?
any material to be processed; e.g., gas oil for cracking, ethylene for petrochemical manufacture.

FURFURAL

WHAT IS IT ?
colorless liquid, C4H3OCHO, employed in petroleum refining as a solvent to extract mercaptans, polar compounds, aromatics, and other impurities from oils and waxes. Also used in the manufacture of dyes and plastics.

GASOHOL

WHAT IS IT ?
blend of 10 volume percent anhydrous ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and 90 volume percent unleaded gasoline.

GAS OIL

WHAT IS IT ?
liquid petroleum distillate, higher boiling than naphtha; initial boiling point may be as low as 204C (400F). Gas oil is called light or heavy, depending on its final boiling point. It is used in blending fuel oil and as refinery feedstock in cracking operations.

GASOLINE (AUTOMOTIVE)

WHAT IS IT ?
blend of light hydrocarbon fractions of relatively high antiknock value. Automotive, or motor, gasoline may consist of the following components: straight-run naphthas, obtained by the primary distillation of crude oil; natural gasoline, which is "stripped", or condensed, out of natural gas; cracked naphthas; reformed naphthas; and alkylate. (See alkylation, catalytic cracking, reforming). A high-quality gasoline has the following properties: (1) proper volatility to ensure easy starting and rapid warm-up; (2) clean-burning characteristics to minimize harmful combustion chamber deposits; (3) additives to prevent rust, oxidation, and deposits in carburetors, intake valves and fuel injectors; (4) sufficiently high octane number to prevent engine knock.

HALOGEN

WHAT IS IT ?
any of a group of five chemically related nonmetallic elements: chlorine, bromine, fluorine, iodine, and astatine. Chlorine compounds are used as EP addiitives in certain lubricating oils, and as constituents of certain petrochemicals (e.g., vinyl chloride, chlorinated waxes). Chlorine and fluorine compounds are also used in some synthetic lubricants

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

WHAT IS IT ?
gaseous compound of sulfur and hydrogen commonly found in crude oil; it is extremely poisonous, corrosive, and foul-smelling.

MERCAPTAN

WHAT IS IT ?
any of a generic series of malodorous, toxic sulfur compounds occurring in crude oil; also known as thiols. Mercaptans are removed from most petroleum products by refining, but may be added to natural gas and LPG in very low concentrations to give a distinctive warning odor.

PHENOL

WHAT IS IT ?
white, crystalline compound (C6H5OH) derived from benzene, used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, weed killers, plastics, disinfectants; also used in solvent extraction, a petroleum refining process. Phenol is a toxic material; skin contact must be avoided.

PROPYLENE

WHAT IS IT ?
flammable gas (CH3CHCH2), derived from hydrocarbon cracking; used in the manufacture of polypropylene plastics

TOLUENE

WHAT IS IT ?
aromatic hydrocarbon (C6H5CH3) with good solvent properties; used in the manufacture of lacquers and other industrial coatings, adhesives, printing ink, insecticides, and chemical raw materials and as an octane booster in gasoline. Also called toluol.

XYLENE

WHAT IS IT ?
aromatic hydrocarbon, C8H10, with three isomers plus ethylbenzene. It is used as a solvent in the manufacture of synthetic rubber products, printing inks for textiles, coatings for paper, and adhesives, and serves as a raw material in the chemical industry.
S.A. McCall