MEAT PROCESSING & BY-PRODUCTS


Grade			Choice		Choice		U.S. #1
Live weight, lbs		1000		100		220
Dressed carcass, lbs	600		50		155
Retail cuts, lbs		420		35		125
By-products, lbs	
Hide or pelt		80		15		--
Edible fats		110		9		35
Variety Meats		38		3		9	
Blood			40		5		9

Inedible fats, bone,
and meat scraps, lbs	175		22		18
Unaccounted items
(stomach contents,
shrink, etc.)		140		11		26


Edible meat by-products
Raw by-product Principal use
Brains Variety meat Liver Variety meat Heart Variety meat Kidneys Variety meat Spleen (melt) Variety meat Sweetbreads Variety meat Tongue Variety meat Oxtails Variety meat Cheek and head trimmings Sausage ingredient Beef extract Soups and bouillion Blood Sausage component Stomach (a) Suckling calves Rennet for cheesemaking (b) Pork Sausage container, ingredient (c) Beef (1st and 2nd) Sausage ingredient, tripe Bones Gelatin for confectioneries, ice cream, and jellied food products Fats (a) Cattle, calves, lambs & sheep Shortening, candies, chewing gum (b) Pork Shortening (lard) Intestines, small Sausage casings Intestines, large (pork) Chitterlings Intestines, large Sausage casings Esophagus (weasand) Sausage ingredient Pork skins Gelatin for confectioneries, ice cream, and jellied food products; french fried pork skins Calf skin trimmings Gelatin for confectioneries, ice cream, and jellied food products

Inedible meat by-products

Raw by-product Processed by-product Principal use
Hide
(cattle and calves)
Leather and glue numerous leather goods
paper boxes
sandpaper
plywood
Hair felts
plaster binder
uphostery
Pork skins Tanned skin leather goods
Pelts Wool textiles
Skin leather goods
Lanolin ointments
Fats Inedible tallow industrial oils
lubricants
glycerin
Tankage
Cracklings
Stick
livestock and poultry feeds
Grease industrial oils
animal feeds
Bones Dry bone glue
hardening steel
Bone meal animal feed
fertilizer
Blood albumen leather preparations
textile sizing
Cattle feet Neatsfoot stock fine lubricants
Neatsfoot oil leather preparations
Glands Pharmaceuticals medicines
Enzyme preparations industrial uses
Lungs pet foods



Hides, Skins and Pelts
Origin Classification Weight, lbs
Unborn calf Slunk skin Less than 9 Calf Light skin calf 9 to 15 Heavy skin calf 15 to 24 Kip skin 24 to 31 Overweight kip skin 31 to 35 Cow Light cow hide Less than 53 Heavy cow hide Greater than 53 Steer Extra light steer hide Less than 48 Light steer hide 48 to 57 Heavy steer hide Greater than 57 Bull Bull hide 60 to 120 plus Stag Accepted as steer or bull depending upon characteristics Brands Native Unbranded (most valuable) Butt branded Branded on hip Colorado branded Branded on side (least valuable)
Pelts
Classification Wool length, inches
Shearlings 1 1/2 to 1 Shearlings 2 1/4 to 1/2 Shearlings 3 1/8 to 1/4 Shearlings 4 less than 1/8 Fall clips 1 to 1-1/2 Wool pelts greater than 1-1/2
Tallows and Greases Titer -- congealing or solidification point of the fatty acids in the fat. Tallow -- fat having a titer above 40 C. Grease -- fat having a titer below 40 C. Dry rendering process -- fatty tissues are placed in horizontal, steam-jacketed cylinders equipped with sets of internal rotating blades. Fat cells are ruptured, and the melted fat is released from the supporting tissues. When sufficient moisture has cooked out, the mixture is filtered or strained to remove the cracklings from the rendered tallow or grease. Animal Feeds and Fertilizers Dried blood (blood meal) -- made by coagulating fresh blood with steam, draining off the liquid, and drying the coagulum. Meat meal -- made from the proteinaceous materials from the inedible rendering process. Steamed bone meal -- made by cooking bones with steam, under a high pressure, in order to remove any fat and meat that may be left on them. Gelatin and Glue Gelatin -- made from skins or hides, connective tissues, cartilage, and bones of cattle and calves. Cooking in water converts the collagen in these materials to gelatin. Glue -- made from the same items as gelatin, but is extracted from these materials by successive heatings in water under specific temperature conditions. Pharmaceuticals Glands Adrenal -- epinephrine is extracted from the adrenal medulla and adrinocortical extract from the adrenal cortex. Ovaries -- used as a source of estrogens and progesterone. Pancreas -- yields insulin and trypsin. Parathyroid -- parathyroid hormone extract is used to prevent large scale muscular rigidity. Pituitary -- source of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). Testes -- source of hyaluronidase. Thyroid -- source of thyroxine and calcitonin. Tissues and Organs Blood -- source of albumin and amino acids. Bone -- source of calcium and phosphorous. Intestines -- surgical sutures and condoms. Liver -- liver extracts and bile extract, which can be used to make cortisone. Lungs -- heparin Spinal cord -- source of cholesterol, which is used to manufacture vitamin D. Stomach -- rennet (from calves), mucin (from pigs), and pepsin (from pigs). Other by-products Fetal calf blood -- used for cancer and AIDS research. Aorta values -- for replacement of defective human heart values. Fetal pigs -- used for biology teaching. Gall stones -- sold as aphrodisiacs in the Far East.
S.A. McCall