INTERMODAL, SEA LAND AND/OR PIGGYBACK SERVICE-HISTORY

1954 GN, WP, and ATSF start north-south piggyback service 1955 N&W, PRR, and Rail-Trailer form Trailer Train 1955 Intermodal is reported as a separate category of freight for the first time 1955 Railroads moved 168,000 carloads of trailers and containers 1955 ACF introduces collapsible trailer hitch 1956 Trailer Train starts operations with 500 ex-PRR 75-foot flatcars 1956 Malcolm McLean forms Sea-Land Services 1956 C&O introduces Rail-Van service, RoadRailer predecessor 1956 Malcolm McLean's Ideal-X sails with 58 containers on board 1956 B&M, CB&Q, MKT, MP, SLSF, Wabash join Trailer Train 1956 Van Pool formed to supply trailers to trucking customers of Rail-Trailer 1957 Experimental Flexi-Van car by Strick 1957 Interstate Highway Act increases trailer length from 35 feet to 40 feet 1957 CNW joins Trailer Train 1957 XTRA Leasing founded 1958 Trailer Train introduces the trailer hitch on its cars 1958 Matson Navigation starts Hawaii/ West Coast container service 1958 B&O, US Freight (freight forwarder) join Trailer Train 1958 NYC starts Flexi-Van service 1959 General American introduces 85-foot flatcar with retractable hitches 1959 C&O orders flatcars to enter the piggyback market 1959 ACL, GM&O, IC, L&N, NYC&StL, SSW, SAL, and WP join Trailer Train 1960 ATSF, C&O, CMStP&P, and DT&I join Trailer Train 1960 GN, KCS, NP, RF&P, SP, SR, T&P, TP&W, and UP join Trailer Train 1960 General American flatcar pool disbanded, most members join Trailer Train 1960 REALCO Leasing formed 12/60 as part of REA 1961 CofG, CGW, RDG join Trailer Train 1961 REALCO assumes leases on 450 Fruehauf trailers from Van Pool 1961 First PACECO gantry crane on PRR at Kearny, NJ 1961 Southern Railway builds its own rail-mounted gantry cranes 1963 DRGW, E-L, WM join Trailer Train 1964 New York Central joins Trailer Train, Flexi-Van service declines 1964 FEC, NYC, CRI&P join Trailer Train 1964 First prototype PiggyPacker tested at SP's LATC ramp 1964 ICC establishes Plans 1-5 for TOFC service 1964 UPS introduces drop-frame "pup" trailers 1964 UPS begins using 40-foot drop-frame trailers 1966 First LeTourneau gantry crane delivered to CB&Q in Chicago 1968 ISO(INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION for STANDARDS)recommended container standards 1968 Hub City established, first third party specializing in intermodal 1968 REALCO sold to Transamerica Corp. 1969 Pullman-Standard 89-foot flatcar introduced 1969 Rail-Van founded 1972 Sea-Land introduces U.S. landbridge service 1972 SeaTrain introduces U.S. mini-landbridge service 1973 ISO container standards published 1977 Hanjin Container Lines established as part of the Hanjin Group 1979 APL begins LinerTrain service with leased flatcars 1979 Combined rail-water landbridge/ mini-landbridge COFC service deregulated 1979 UPS establishes Martrac with 42-foot refrigerated trailers 1980 Trailer Train modifies 89-foot cars for two 45-foot trailers. 1980 Chessie System and Seaboard System merge to form CSX 1980 Sea-Land tests SP double-stack prototypes 1980 Budd introduces prototype LoPac 2000 trailer well car 1980 Staggers Rail Act "deregulates" railroads 1980 Motor Carrier Act "deregulates" motor carriers FOR FURTHER INFORMATION and ROADS OUTSIDE THE SOUTHEAST SEE TIOGA GROUP To: freightcars@sunny16.photo.tntech.edu Subject: [FC] Auto rack time frames 10 Apr 2002 When were the first open 89 foot auto racks placed in service? When were the first fully-enclosed auto racks placed in service? Thanks, Tom Persoon To: freightcars@sunny16.photo.tntech.edu From: Jim Eager Subject: Re: [FC] Auto rack time frames 10 Apr 2002 The first ACF and Pullamn 89ft low-level flats designed for autorack service were introduced in 1961 But, if you mean the Accurail model of a Paragon rack mounted on a flush-deck flat, they were introduced in numbers in 1968-69. If you apply the Accurail rack to a Walthers 89ft standard-deck car you can backdate to about 1967. >When were the first fully-enclosed auto racks placed in service? If you exclude the CN's fully enclosed autocarrier boxcars (1959), Vert-A-Pacs (1970), Stac-Pacs (1972), and several experimental cars in 1973, the first production fully-enclosed autoracks were delivered in 1974 from Whitehead & Kales (Safe-Pak) and Paragon (RailPac). But, if you mean the Walthers enclosed racks then both the bilevel and trilevel match Thrall cars built from about 1984-85 on, but you can be backdate both to 1979-1984 Whitehaed & Kales/Thrall production by simply scribing a horzontal line across smooth panel at both ends of the carside, about 1/3 up the panel. With more work you can backdate both cars to 1977-78 W&K production. -- Jim Eager

TRAILER TRAIN INFORMATION-1964

Fri, 6 Dec 2002 Subject: Re: [FC] Some TTX questions The Freightcars List >From Railway Age 5/25/64, which featured Trailer Train. Table shows the following reporting marks that "...were adopted early this year." TTX Used for trailer service only ATTX General-purpose car with tie-down anchors but without trailer hitch BTTX Equipped with bi-level auto rack CTTX Equipped for container transport, but also able to carry trailers ETTX Equipped with elevated tri-level auto rack GTTX General American G85 car for trailer service only KTTX Equipped with hinged-end tri-level auto rack LTTX Low-deck car equipped for trailer service RTTX Equipped with fixed tri-level auto rack STTX Leased to shippers No JTTX, so use was after 1964. July 68 ORER has " JTTX Flat cars, ARR Mech Designation "FMS" specially modified or equipped (by members of Trailer Train Co.) with miscellaneous devices or special services" So, JTTX between mid-64 & mid-68. No TTGX in July 68, July 69, July 72 or Oct 74 Best Regards, Rich Chapin Fri, 06 Dec 2002 Subject: Re: [FC] Some TTX questions The Freightcars List > From: "Kinkaid, James A" I've gone through my ORERs to try to answer the following questions. Obviously this is only as good as the info that TTX reported, but should be helpful. > Does anybody know when TTX first used the reporting marks JTTX wherein this > reporting mark was exclusively used for 89' flat cars prepared for > application of auto racks whilst the cars were in route to the applicator? > GTTX was used later on. Some cars were known to be used in 1976 and this > reporting mark was stopped for this application in 1998. The JTTX reporting mark goes back to the 1/1966 ORER. The definition has changed somewhat over the years, but they essentially all read that it denotes "flat cars specially modified or equipped by members of Trailer Train Co. with miscellaneous devices for special services." Short answer is that I don't believe that it was ever exclusively assigned to this purpose, rather that this purpose was considered to be "special service". > Can anybody give me any dates of sightings of TBOX cars for 50', 100 ton > cars. Looking for the earliest sightings. Probably sometime in 2003, but > not sure when. As of the 10/2002 ORER, the reporting mark doesn't yet exist. > LIkewise, does anybody have any information on when TTGX was first used as a > 68', 100 ton general service flat. Known to be in use by 5-69, but > supposedly not in the ORER between 5-69 and 5-72. First reference to this reporting mark is in the 7/1969 ORER, but it is flagged as being one for which there are no cars listed. Interestingly, there is no definition of the meaning of this reporting mark at least through 7/1976. By 1/1977 the following definition was in use: "flat cars equipped with fully enclosed bi-level auto racks furnished by participant railroads" (I don't have a copy of the 10/1976 issue). > While on the subject of TTGX, I also am looking for the first useage of this > reporting mark as used for an 89-4 flat with fully enclosed bi-level rack. > The mark, as used in this application, is still in use. Known to be used > for this application by 10-77, but was probably begun much earlier. No cars were listed with TTGX marks in 1/1977, I don't have a copy of 4/1977, but by 7/1977 there were about 120 cars in various series in the 910110-965642 range listed. The AAR code is V392, which then denoted an 89-4 or over fully enclosed bilevel. > Anybody have any data on TTNX as used for an 89-4 enclosed bi-level rack > without end doors? Looking for a first sighting between 1-83 and 3-84 (or > earlier). Not listed in 5/1983 (which is probably really a 4/1983), by 10/1983 various series in the 965913-966008 range (I don't have a 7/1983), with probably only about 30 cars in total. The AAR code is V870, which then denoted a bilevel rack, partially enclosed, no doors, standard deck, hinged B deck, 89-4 or greater. > Last item is the first sighting on a TTSX car where the reporting mark is > for an 89-4 flat with enclosed roofless bi-level rack. Should be sometime > between 1-81 and 1-82. Not listed 10/1978, in 1/1979 eight cars were listed in the 942279-942486 series, by 7/1981 groups in the 942279-942486 & 963501, totalling 9 cars, by 1/1982 groups in the 942279-942486 & 961367-964447 series, with 129 cars. The AAR code is V792, which then denoted a partially enclosed (open top) bilevel, 89-0 to 89-4 with cushioning device, standard deck (more than 2-8 above rail). -- Ian Cranstone
S.A. McCall